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A Guide To Photovoltaic System

what is photovoltaic system

Solar power generation system consists of a solar cell set, solar controller, and battery (set). If the output power is AC 220V or 110V, it also needs to be equipped with an inverter.

Solar power generation system is divided into off-grid power generation system and grid-connected power generation system:

  • Off-grid power generation system. It is mainly composed of solar modules, controller, and battery. To supply power to AC loads, an AC inverter is also required.
  • Grid-connected power generation system is the direct current generated by solar modules through the grid-connected inverter into AC power that meets the requirements of the utility grid after direct access to the public grid. Grid-connected power generation systems have centralized large-scale grid-connected power stations are generally national power stations, the main feature is the power generated directly to the grid, and the grid-unified deployment of power supply to users. However, this kind of power station has a large investment, a long construction period, and large floor space, and has not been too much development. The decentralized small grid-connected power generation system, especially the PV building integrated power generation system, is the mainstream of the current grid-connected power generation due to the advantages of small investment, fast construction, small footprint, and strong policy support.

Solar Panel

Solar panels are the core part of a solar power system. The role of solar panels is to convert the sun’s light energy into electrical energy and then output DC power for storage in a battery. The solar panel is one of the most important components of a solar power system, and its conversion rate and service life are important factors in determining whether a solar cell is valuable. Module design: Designed according to IEC:1215:1993 standard, 36 or 72 polycrystalline silicon solar cells are connected in series to form various types of modules of 12V and 24V. The modules can be used in various household PV systems, stand-alone PV power plants and grid-connected PV power plants, etc.

Solar Module Raw Material Characteristics

Cell: High efficiency (16.5% or more) monocrystalline silicon solar cell package is used to ensure sufficient solar panel power generation.

Glass: Low-iron tempered chamfered glass (also known as white glass) with a thickness of 3.2mm is used, with a transmittance of 91% or more in the wavelength range of the solar cell’s spectral response (320-1100nm) and a high reflectance for infrared light greater than 1200nm. This glass is also resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation, and the transmittance does not decrease.

EVA: High quality EVA film layer of 0.78mm thickness with anti-UV agent, anti-oxidant and curing agent is used as the sealing agent of solar cell and the connecting agent between glass and TPT. It has high light transmittance and anti-aging ability.

TPT: The backside covering of solar cell – fluoroplastic film is white, which plays a reflective role to sunlight, so it slightly improves the efficiency of the module, and because of its high infrared emissivity, it can also reduce the working temperature of the module, which also helps to improve the efficiency of the module. Of course, this fluorine plastic film has the basic requirements of aging resistance, corrosion resistance and impermeability required by solar cell encapsulation materials.

Frame: The aluminum alloy frame used has high strength and strong resistance to mechanical impact. It is also the most valuable part of the solar power system.

Solar Controller

The solar controller is composed of a special processor CPU, electronic components, display, switching power tubes, etc.

Main Features:

  • The use of a single-chip computer and special software, to achieve intelligent control;
  • Accurate discharge control using the battery discharge rate characteristic correction. Discharge end voltage is the control point corrected by the discharge rate curve, eliminating the inaccuracy of simple voltage control over discharge, in line with the inherent characteristics of the battery, that is, different discharge rates have different end voltages.
  • With overcharge, overdischarge, electronic short circuit, overload protection, unique anti-reverse connection protection and other fully automatic control; none of the above protections damage any parts and do not burn insurance;
  • The use of series PWM charging main circuit, so that the charging circuit voltage loss than the use of diode charging circuit is reduced by nearly half, charging efficiency is 3%-6% higher than non-PWM, increasing the power consumption time; over-discharge recovery of boost charging, normal direct charging, float charging automatic control mode to make the system by a longer service life; at the same time with high-precision temperature compensation;
  • Intuitive LED light-emitting tube indicates the current battery status, so that users understand the use of the status;
    6, all control all use industrial grade chips (only for with I industrial grade controller), can run freely in cold, high temperature, humid environment. Also used the crystal timing control, timing control accurate.
  • Eliminated the potentiometer to adjust the control set point, and the use of E-square memory to record the work of the control points, so that the settings digital, eliminating the potentiometer vibration offset, temperature drift and other factors that make the control point error to reduce the accuracy and reliability;
  • The use of digital LED display and settings, a key operation can be completed all settings, the use of extremely convenient and intuitive role is to control the working state of the entire system, and the battery to play the role of over-charge protection, over-discharge protection. In places with large temperature differences, the qualified controller should also have the function of temperature compensation. Other additional functions such as light-controlled switches, time-controlled switches should be optional for the controller;
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